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Part Of Speech Lengkap Dan Contohnya

September 18, 2017 | Grammar, Part Of Speech

Yang disebut part of speech adalah sekelompok kata yang digunakan dengan cara tertentu. Misalnya, run “lari”dan jump “lompat” digunakan untuk menggambarkan tindakan / keadaan. Oleh karena itu mereka termasuk dalam kelompok VERBS. Sementara kursi “chair”, table “meja menunjukan sebuah benda, karenanya disebut NOUNS atau kata benda. Ada delapan jenis part of speech dalam bahasa inggris, 2 contohnya adalah VERBS dan NOUNS di atas.

Dengan kata lain, semua kata dalam bahasa Inggris terbagi menjadi delapan kategori part of speech yang berbeda. Setiap kategori part of speech memiliki peran / fungsi yang berbeda dalam kalimat. Belajar part of speech penting untuk memahami grammar bahasa inggris.

8 Jenis Part Of Speech Bahasa Inggris

Dalam bahasa Inggris banyak kata digunakan di lebih dari satu cara. Ini berarti sebuah kata dapat berfungsi sebagai parts of speech yang berbeda.

Misalnya, dalam kalimat “I would like a drink / Saya mau minum” kata “drink” berarti “minuman” adalah kata benda. Namun, dalam kalimat “They drink too much / Mereka minum terlalu banyak” kata “drink” disini berarti “minum” adalah kata kerja. Jadi semuanya tergantung pada peran kata dalam kalimat.

Part Of Speech Lengkap Dan Contohnya

Contoh Example Of Part Of Speech Bahasa Inggris

1. Noun

Noun atau Kata benda adalah kata yang menamai seseorang, tempat atau benda. Kata “noun” berasal dari kata Latin nomen, yang berarti “name,” dan noun memang bagaimana kita memberi nama orang, tempat dan benda.

Contoh :
Sandi, lady, cat, New York, Bandung, room, school, football, shoes.

Contoh Kalimat:
People like to go to the beach.
Emma passed the test.
My parents are traveling to Japan next month.

Jenis-Jenis Noun adalah

Abstract Nouns

Sebuah abstract noun adalah noun menjelaskan sebuah ide bukan benda fisik.

Contoh:
Hope, interest, love, peace, ability, success, knowledge, trouble.

Concrete Nouns

Sebuah concrete noun adalah noun yang menjelaskan benda fisik.

Contoh:
Boy, table, floor, coffee, beach, king, rain, children, professor.

Common Nouns

Sebuah common noun adalah noun menamai orang atau benda secara umum.

Contoh:
Boy, girl, city, country, company, planet, location, war.

Proper Nouns

Sebuah proper noun adalah kebalikan dari Common nouns. Jenis noun ini menunjukan nama sesuatu secara khusus. Digunakan huruf Kapital di awal kata.

Contoh:
Robin, Alice, London, Sweden, Google, Earth, Eiffel Tower, Civil War.

Countable Nouns

Countable noun adalah noun yang bisa dihitung.

Contohnya, kita bisa menghitung kucing : one cat, two cats, three cats…
Tetapi, kita tidak bisa mengitung air: one water, two water…

Ciri countable noun, kita bisa menambahkan a/an di depannya.

Contoh:
Window, teacher, tree, lion, eye, cloud, pencil, heart, movie.

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable noun tidak bisa dihitung.

Contohnya, kita bisa menghitung kucing : one cat, two cats, three cats…
Tetapi, kita tidak bisa mengitung air: one water, two water…

Ciri uncountable noun, kita bisa tidak bisa menambahkan a/an di depannya

Examples:
Furniture, advice, mail, news, equipment, luggage, work, coffee, information.

2. Pronouns

Pronoun adalah kata yang digunakan untuk mengganti noun. Kata Pronoun berasal dari “pro” berari pengganti yang ditambah “noun”.

Contoh:

Nuri is a nice girl     menjadi She is a nice girl

Contoh:
I, he, it, we, them, us, mine, itself.

Contoh kalimat:
He doesn’t want go with them.
Would they help us?
His house is bigger than ours.
Who is she?

Jenis-Jenis Pronouns

Demonstrative Pronouns

“Demonstrative” berarti menunjukan. Demonstrative pronouns menunjukan benda. The demonstrative pronouns adalah: this, that, these, those.

“this” and “these” sesuatu yang dekat.
“that” and “those” sesuatu yang jauh.

Contoh Kalimat:
This cannot go on.
That was beautiful!
He wanted those, but decided to compromise on these.

Interrogative Pronouns

Interrogative pronouns digunakan untuk menanyakan. The interrogative pronouns : who, whom, which, what, whoever, whatever, etc.

“who” and “whom” untuk orang.
“which” and “what” untuk benda dan hewan.

Contoh Kalimat:
Who is your father?
Whom did you speak to?
Which bag did you buy?
What are my choices?

Possessive Pronouns

Possessive pronouns kepemilikan. The possessive pronouns: my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.

Contoh Kalimat:
I’ve lost my wallet.
He married his girlfriend.
This place is theirs.
Is that cat yours?
My car is slow. Hers is much faster.

Relative Pronouns

Relative pronouns menghubungkan phrase dalam kalimat.
The relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that, whoever, etc.

Contoh Kalimat:
The girl who called yesterday came to see you.
The teacher whom you wrote has answered your questions.
She lives in Kiev, which is the capital city of Ukraine.
I really liked the book that you gave me.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive pronouns menunjukan pelaku dari sebuah perbuatan sendiri. Reflexive pronouns berakhiran “-self” (singular) or “-selves” (plural). The reflexive pronouns: myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, themselves.

Contoh Kalimat:
He cut himself while shaving.
I sent myself to bed.
He could hurt himself!
We must help ourselves.
She trusts herself.

Intensive Pronouns

Sebuah intensive pronoun menunjukan Pelaku melakukan sesuatu sendiri. Penulisan sama dengan reflexive pronouns, tapi fungsinya berbeda.

myself baked the cake.
The queen herself recommended this restaurant.
Have you yourself been there?
The project itself wasn’t difficult.
We will do it ourselves.

Reciprocal Pronouns

Reciprocal artinya saling melakukan hal sama antara dua benda atau orang.

Contoh,

Joe loves Kate, and Kate loves Joe. Jadi, “Kate and Joe love each other.”

Mike helps Lucy, and Lucy helps Mike. Jadi, “Mike and Lucy help each other.”

Ada dua reciprocal pronouns : Each other and one another.

The cat and the dog like each other.
The two politicians hate each other.
We must stop fighting one another.
They gave each other Christmas presents.
They can’t hear one another.

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns tidak menunjuk ke satu spesifik benda atau orang.

Contoh:
Anything, everybody, another, each, few, many, none, some.

Contoh Kalimat:
Many have died during the war.
Can anyone call her?
Everybody wants to see you.
Something can be done to help.

3. Adjectives

Adjective adalah kata yang menjelaskan benda atau orang.

Contoh:
Big, pretty, expensive, green, round, French, loud, quick, fat.

Contoh Kalimat:
He has big blue eyes.
The new car broke down.
The old lady was talking in a quiet voice.

Kata “adjective” berasal dari bahasa Latin “jacere”, yang dalam bahasa inggris berarti “to throw.”

Adjectives dibagi menjadi tipe:

Opinion
Nice, pretty, stupid, original, expensive, etc.

Size
Big, small, large, tiny, enormous, little, etc.

Age
Young, old, new, ancient, antique, etc.

Shape
Round, square, flat, straight, etc.

Color
Blue, red, white, black, dark, bright, yellowish, etc.

Origin
Italian, British, Mexican, western, southern, etc.

Material
Metal, wooden, plastic, golden, etc.

Determiners

Determiner adalah kata di depan benda atau orang yang kita maksud dalam kalimat.

Contoh:
A, an, the, my, your, some, any, several, enough, any.

Contoh kalimat:
I have a red hat.
Please give me my bag.
Some people decided to leave.
She doesn’t want any money.
They watched several movies.

  • Adjectives Yang Berupa Nouns

Kadang noun bisa menjadi adjective.

Contoh:
Sports car
Orange juice
Television station
Coffee shop
Book cover

  • Urutan Penggunaan Adjective

Aturannya:

Determiner -> opinion -> size -> age -> shape -> color
-> origin -> material -> a word describing purpose/function

Contoh:
A nice little coffee shop
(Determiner -> opinion -> size -> purpose/function word)

My huge new swimming pool
(Determiner -> size -> age -> purpose/function word)

Several Chinese plastic cups
(Determiner -> origin -> material)

The round yellow ball
(Determiner -> shape -> color)

Bila ada  beberapa kata sifat dengan tipe yang sama, harus memisahkannya dengan koma atau conjunction (and, but).

Contoh:
A cheap, good meal
A happy, smart man
The beautiful, original painting
My nice and sweet cat
An expensive but important trip

  • Comparative adjectives

Comparative adjective membandingkan Benda.

Contoh:
Better, worse, bigger, smaller, nicer, fatter, thinner, more dangerous.

Contoh Kalimat:
She is a better student than her brothers.
The test was worse than I’d expected.
You are stronger than me.
He seems healthier.
You are more beautiful than her.

Superlative adjectives

“Superlative” artinya yang paling”

Contoh:
Best, worst, strongest, smallest, cheapest, most expensive.

Contoh Kalimat:
You are my best friend.
This is the worst day of my life.
Even the smallest donation helps.
This is the most expensive restaurant I’ve ever heard of.

4. Verbs

Verb adalah kata yang menunjukan perbuatan. Kata”verb” dari bahasa Latin “verbum”, berarti “word.”

Contoh:
Go, jump, sleep, eat, think, be, change, become, drive, complete.

Contoh Kalimat:
We had a nice lunch.
I think that he is right.
He drove for hours.

Jenis-Jenis verb

  • Auxiliary Verbs 

Auxiliary verbs digunakan bersamaan denagn verb utama.

Main verb + auxiliary verb = perbuatan yang dilakukan

Beberapa auxiliary verbs:
be, am, is, are, was, were, do, did, have, has, had.

Contoh Kalimat (the auxiliary – bold, and main verb – underlined):
They are jogging.
She was sitting.
We were waiting for hours.
Is she sleeping?
He didn’t know the answer.
We have gone a long way.
Has she received any of my letters?
Do you smoke?
Will she help?

  • Compound Verbs

compound verb = auxiliary verb + main verb.

Contoh :
was playing, has eaten, doesn’t want.

They were discussing their future.
He didn’t tell us the truth.
I have finished my homework.
She will meet us there.

  • Stative Verbs

Stative verbs tidak menunjukan perbuatan, tapi keadaan.

contoh:
be, seem, love, own, want, sound, have, know, understand.

Contoh Kalimat:
She is a great wife.
He seems rather strange.
He wanted to see you.
That sounds awesome!
We have enough things to do.

Stative verbs jarang digunakan di tenses jenis continuous.

Contoh:
Incorrect: He is wanting to see you.
Correct: He wants to see you.

Incorrect: I am knowing what to do.
Correct: I know what to do.

Incorrect: They are seeming nice.
Correct: They seem nice.

  • Dynamic Verbs

Dynamic verbs lawan dari stative verbs. Ini Menjunjukan perbuatan.

Contoh:
Jump, swim, catch, write, call, sleep, hit, open, speak.

Contoh kalimat:
They swam to the other side.
She hit me on the head!
Open the window, please.

  • Regular Verbs

Regular verbs memiliki aturan:
Past  verb = present  verb + ed / d.

Contoh:
Past dari “check” = check + ed = checked.
Past dari “open” = open + ed = opened.
Past dari  “bake” = bake + d = baked.

  • Irregular Verbs

Irregular verbs bentuk pastnya tidak beraturan.

Contoh:
Past dari   “drink” = drank.
Past dari  “sleep” = slept.
Past dari  “bring” = brought.

Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb adalah verb yang dikombinasi dengan adverb or a preposition dan memberi arti baru.

Contoh:
Run = lari. (“She can run fast!”)
Into = ke. (“He looked into my eyes.”)
Run into = bertemu secara tak sengaja. (“I ran into Joe yesterday.”)

Make = membuat. (“He made a lot of noise.”)
Up = ke atas. (“Look up!”)
Make up = mengada-ada. (“It never happened. He made the whole thing up!”)

Put = meletakan. (“Could you put this upstairs?”)
Up = ke atas. (“Look up!”)
With = dengan (“She is happy with her workplace.”)
Put up with = mentoleransi. (“I cannot put up with his behavior any more!”)

5. Adverbs

Adverb menjelaskan tentang verb, adjective, adverb lain, or bahkan sebuah kalimat lengkap. Kata “adverb” dari bahasa Latin “ad-” (in addition) dan “verbum” (word).

adverb menjelaskan verb:
She runs quickly.

adverb menjelaskan  adjective:
She is so beautiful.

adverb menjelaskan  adverb lain:
She smokes very rarely.

adverb menjelaskan satu kalimat:
Naturally, you don’t have to come.

Adverbs dibagi menjadi:

  • Adverbs of degree

Contoh:
Very, highly, totally, perfectly, partially, almost.

Kalimat:
He is very concerned with you.
You are totally right.
We almost made it to the train.

  • Adverbs of manner

Contoh:
Well, badly, nicely, slowly, loudly, quietly, happily, sadly, secretly, weakly.

Kalimat:
He handled the situation well.
She listened secretly to their conversation.
The children ran happily to their father.

  • Adverbs of place

Contoh:
Home, here, there, outside, inside, away, around, anywhere, abroad, up, down, out.

Kalimat:
We are here.
He went home.
We found him outside.
She looked up.

  • Adverbs of time

Contoh:
Now, soon, later, yesterday, tomorrow, early, before, lately, recently.

kalimat:
Let’s talk now.
I will do it later.
He promised to write back soon.
What are you doing tomorrow?
We haven’t met before.

  • Adverbs of frequency

Contoh:
Always, never, sometimes, often, rarely, usually, occasionally.

Kalimat:
I always brush my teeth after a meal.
We often meet and chat.
He is usually here on time.

  • Adverbs of duration

Contoh:
Forever, constantly, temporarily, briefly.

Kalimat:
He is working there temporarily.
We spoke briefly.
I will be forever grateful.

  • Adverbs of probability

Contoh:
Certainly, maybe, probably, possibly, surely.

Kalimat:
She will certainly forget about it.
Maybe we’ll come after all.
It will probably not work.
Surely you are not serious!

  • Comparative adverbs

Contoh:
more, less, better, worse, faster, slower, farther, closer.

Kalimat:
Maggie works out more seriously than Donna.
She eats less than her friends.
You are better than this.
We couldn’t go slower even if we wanted to.
Let’s get closer.

  • Superlative adverbs

Contoh:
Best, most, least, worst, strongest, fastest, slowest.

Kalimat:
He knows best.
It was the most boring experience.
He shouted the loudest so he won.
He ran the slowest so he lost.

6. Prepositions

Preposition adalah kata untuk menunjukan location, direction, time, dan lain-lain. Kata “preposition” dari bahasa Latin “praeponere” berarti “put before”.

Contoh:
On, in, at, by, under, above, beside, to, out, from, for.

Kalimat:
I sat on the floor.
Let’s go into the house.
We will meet at four o’clock.
Have a look under the couch.
He went to school.
This letter is for you.

7. Conjunctions

Conjunction menghubungkan bagian dari kalimat. kata “conjunction” dari bahasa Latin “conjungere” berarti “join together”.

Contoh:
And, but, or, because, so.

Kalimat:
I want to come, but I can’t.
She is smart and beautiful.
Would you like a cat or a dog?
He didn’t pass the test because he didn’t understand the subject.
We were hungry, so we ordered pizza.

8. Interjections

Kata “interjection” dari bahasa Latin “interjicere” artinya “throw between”. Interjection menunjukan emosi.

Contoh:
Oh! Look out! Ow! Hey! Wow! Ah! Um…

Kalimat:
Wow, that’s amazing!
Ah, that was a good meal.
Um… I’m not sure what to say.
Oh dear! What happened?
Hello! How are you doing?
Well, that’s an option too.

Part Of Speech

Demikian bahasan tentang part of speech kali ini. Sekian, semoga materi part of speech di atas bermanfaat.

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